A cystourethroscopy or cystoscopy is a procedure that is used to examine the insides of the urethra and bladder. It makes use of a special endoscope known as a cystoscope. This procedure is performed by urologists when they need to analyze the interior lining of the bladder. This is also done when biopsies of a particular area need to be taken. A cystourethroscopy may be recommended in case of individuals who display symptoms such as urinary tract infections, problems in urination, blood in the urine or hematuria, genetic abnormalities in the urinary tract, tumors in the bladder, bladder stones or kidney stones, pain or discomfort in the ureters or urethra and prostate enlargement.
A cystourethroscopy usually takes about ten to forty minutes to perform. The individual is required to urinate prior to the surgery. This enables the doctor to have a precise measurement of the urine that is left in the bladder. A cystoscope is first lubricated and inserted into the urethra and then passed into the bladder. A urine sample is then obtained. Next, sterile water is introduced into the bladder in order to inflate it. This allows the doctor to examine the inside walls of the bladder.
During the procedure, the doctor may either extract the kidney stones or bladder stones or obtain tissue samples which will be sent for further analysis. Any abnormal lesions may also be treated during the examination. If x-ray studies are required, a contrast dye is introduced into the ureters by injecting it through a catheter that is passed through the cystoscope. Once all the tests are completed and the examination has been carried out thoroughly, the cystoscope is removed.
The individual is likely to experience symptoms such as a burning sensation during urination or blood in the urine after the procedure. This is normal after a cystourethroscopy and not a cause for concern. A cystourethroscopy is a fairly simple procedure, although there are a few risks that are associated with it. These risks are similar to those associated with any invasive procedure. Local anesthesia may sometimes not have a sufficient numbing effect and the individual may experience discomfort. In rare cases, an individual may have an allergic reaction to the type of anesthesia used.
Some individuals may also be unable to urinate and as such a catheter may need to be used to drain the bladder. Infection, bleeding and puncture of the bladder are the other risks associated with the procedure. However, these risks are very rare and most cystourethroscopy procedures take place with minimal or no discomfort to the individual.
Submitted by M T on February 25, 2010 at 12:56