DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is present within the cells of the body. Within the DNA one finds the genetic code for the individual. This genetic code contains all the information needed to determine various characteristics of an individual. These characteristics could be physical such as height and build. Other characteristics might include particular abnormalities. DNA mutations may also be present in a patient. This would help to analyze whether the particular person is susceptible to a particular disease or not.
The DNA test is also used to establish whether a particular child is related to his or her parents. This is usually conducted as a paternity test when the parentage of a child is not confirmed. A DNA test may also be used for criminal investigations when the law enforcement agencies are attempting to link a particular individual to a crime of some sort. DNA material can be found from samples of hair or samples of body fluids. DNA can also be found in the blood and in the tissue samples of a particular individual. Generally speaking, the best method of collecting DNA from an individual is by using a buccal swab. This is not always possible, particularly when it is undesirable to make the person aware that testing is being conducted. There are also some legal issues relating to the collection of DNA evidence using a buccal swab.
When the DNA material is collected it is sent to a laboratory where testing is conducted based on one of the many available testing methods for DNA analysis. The many complicated methods used to analyze the DNA include RFLP analysis, PCR analysis (which has mostly replaced the RFLP analysis), STR analysis, and AmpFLP analysis. These are complicated laboratory procedures which are used to isolate the various different markers of DNA. When these markers are isolated, they could be used to be matched with the target DNA evidence, or they could even be analyzed to check for the person's risk of developing particular diseases or infections.
When comparing DNA from the source individual and the target DNA data, a complete and accurate comparison can be made using any modern DNA test. DNA tests can also be conducted at home anonymously. These tests involve the collection of a sample by an individual which is then sent by mail to a laboratory along with the target sample. These tests are usually used for paternity confirmation.More articles from the Genetic Testing Category