A cystoscopy is a procedure that uses a scope to evaluate the insides of the bladder and urethra. This is usually done to detect abnormalities in the bladder or to assist in a surgery that is being done on the interiors of the urinary tract. A cystoscopy may be used to examine the bladder, urethra (which includes the prostate in males) and the ureters which are the tiny tubes that carry the urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Other conditions that require a cystoscopy include blood in the urine, kidney stones, tumors in the ureters or bladder, narrowing of the urethra and prostate cancer. This procedure is performed by an urologist or a urologic surgeon. Most cystoscopies are performed in the hospital with the administration of different types of anesthesia. Some simple procedures may also be done at the doctor’s dispensary after administration of a local anesthetic.
A cystoscopy may be performed using two types of cystoscopes. In most cases, a rigid cystoscope is used. Flexible scopes may be used for minor procedures. Local anesthesia is usually administered, while for longer procedures, general anesthesia may be given. Before the procedure, the genital region is washed thoroughly. After placing sterile drapes on the individual, the cystoscope is inserted into the urethra after lubricating it. As the scope is passed through the urethra, the doctor examines the insides of the urethra. Once the scope passes into the bladder, sterile water is used to fill the bladder. The water causes the bladder to stretch and acn therefore be examined. The doctor views the bladder directly through the scope. A video camera may also be connected to the scope so that images may be seen on a monitor. Other instruments may also be inserted through the channels of the cystoscope. This helps in removal of stones, bladder or prostate tumor resection. Cauterization may also be done to stop bleeding. Once the bladder biopsy procedure is complete, the bladder is drained.
A bladder biopsy is used to extract a piece of tissue from the inside of the bladder. This sample is then sent to a pathologist for evaluation. In some cases, the entire area that is suspected to have a problem is also removed and sent for analysis. A bladder biopsy is generally done during a cystoscopy. Bladder abnormalities and tumors may be detected through a bladder biopsy. A bladder biopsy may be performed in cases of prostate cancer where the cancer is suspected to have spread to the bladder.
Submitted by M H on February 25, 2010 at 12:53