A chromosome analysis is a method that is used to identify chromosomal abnormalities. This procedure is also called karyotyping. The test involves analyzing the chromosomes contained in a cell sample to identify genetic disorders or diseases. It is also used to analyze the structure of the chromosome.
Chromosome abnormalities can be a cause of birth defects like Down's syndrome and Turner's syndrome and can also be responsible for infertility and miscarriages. Depending on the need, a chromosome analysis can be done using the following methods
The analysis normally does not require any preparation, and the results are available in a few days.
After the samples are collected, they are first grown in the laboratory and then stained. The lab technician then uses a microscope to analyze the chromosomes. The results of a chromosome analysis can either be normal or abnormal.
Under normal circumstances, 46 chromosomes need to be found, 44 of which are called autosomes and the remaining 2 are sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes can help to identify the sex of the baby. A chromosome count that is lesser than or greater than 46 indicates a chromosome abnormality and can be an indication of the following conditions:
It is important to know that cancer treatments such as chemotherapy can have an impact on the chromosome count.
Chromosome analysis is also used in the area of forensic sciences. A technique called STR or short tandem repeat is used in finger print analysis. The results of an STR chromosome analysis are used to create a DNA database for further analysis.
Chromosome analysis is a very powerful tool that can help to proactively identify medical problems when the child is in the womb. This can help a doctor to identify an appropriate treatment well in advance.