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Reasons, Procedure & Preparation Required For a Adenovirus Antibodies Test

Submitted on March 27, 2012

What is a Adenovirus Antibodies Test?

The adenovirus antibodies test is a test that is conducted to find the presence of the adenovirus in the body. Adenovirdae is the family of virus that comprises the entire lot of adenoviruses. These viruses can cause disease in humans and animals. An infection of this virus will at most cause an upper respiratory tract infection, urinary bladder infection, or a case of gastroenteritis. However, there is a new mutation in this virus called the Adenovirus serotype 14 variant that is potentially fatal to humans, having killed ten seemingly healthy people so far. The virus has an elaborate mechanism of infiltrating into host cells and then using the host's cell to reproduce and then shed. Most adenovirus infections, however, are nearly completely asymptomatic but in immunocompromised individuals, the case would be different.

Reasons Why It is Conducted

The test for adenovirus antibodies is conducted whenever there is specific concern that there is an adenovirus outbreak that is imminent. The diseases caused by the adenovirus is usually never fatal and the body's immune systems are more than adept at destroying the virus; however, due to the easy spread of the virus through droplet infection and the fecal oral route, there might be concerns of an epidemic, much like the flu.

Preparation

There is no preparation required for the test as the test is done based on a blood sample or a culture sample. Blood samples are usually used to check for antigens while culture samples are usually acquired from mucus secretions from the area of direct infection. Any kind of anticoagulant medication use, like heparin, must be reported to the pathologist to ensure care when extracting blood.

Procedure

The standard testing methods for adenovirus antibodies are the ELISA test, antigen testing, polymerase chain reaction assay, and serology. For specific checks against antibodies, the ELISA method is used. As with all viral infections, there is no cure for an adenovirus infection and the only power that can eliminate a virus is the human immune system itself. Care is usually always taken to ensure that a situation of a cytokine storm is avoided by reducing the ferocity of fevers using anti-inflammatory drugs like acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen. The former should never be used in children. An adenovirus infection usually resolves itself in a week. Preventing the spread of the virus requires isolation of diseased individuals and practicing a high level or hygiene that involves cleanliness of hands after contact with any shared surfaces.

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